Goosegrass (Eleusine indica), is an annual or short-lived pantropical grass that is generally viewed as a harmful weed. It can anyway be useful scavenges giving up to 30 t/ha of new matter, and it very well may be eaten by animals at the beginning phases of development. The seeds are utilized as starvation food and the vegetative parts can be eaten as a vegetable.
Eleusine indica is a fleeting tufted lasting branch from the base and can have an erect, decumbent, or prostrate niche. The root system is especially extreme and challenging to pull out. The culms develop to a level of 30-130 cm. The culms are geniculate at the base, thin, and compacted. The leaves are substituted and the leaf-sharp edge is level, straight in some cases collapsed, and 5-35 cm long x 4-6 mm wide. The culms hold 2-7 panicles that are segmented.
Eleusine indica is a pantropical and subtropical grass. It is found from sea level up to 1200-2000 m height in upset land, squander places, along the side of the road and riversides, sea shores and open banks, and in soggy marshlands. It flourishes with sandy soil and N-rich soils. It is a danger in arable land, in yards, ranches, and nurseries.
Goosegrass is late spring, quickly developing grass that ideally fills in full daylight, where the normal temperature is 23°C and where yearly precipitation ranges from 500 to 1200 mm. It endures a few dry periods because of its broad underground root growth. It can develop on extremely shallow or compacted soilsLee, L.J. and J. Ngim, A first report of glyphosate‐resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) in Malaysia. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 2000. 56(4): p. 336-339. Read.
Goosegrass, also termed as called wiregrass, is an annual summer grass and sporadically, a lasting. Aside from non-flooded desert areas, it is found all through California to around 660 feet (200 m). Goosegrass is typically tracked down in compacted regions or areas of weighty wear; it possesses rural land and other upset places, particularly those that get some late spring water and develop near the ground.
An inescapable and exceptionally factor species endures an expansive scope of ecological circumstances, yet doesn’t endure ice. Goosegrass is defenseless to infections that cause sicknesses, for example, sugar stick mosaic. Turf, finished regions, gardens, crop fields, plantations, side of the road, and other upset places are favorite spots for goosegrass spread. Eleusine indica is also famous with many common names such as the Indian goosegrass, yard-grass, goosegrass, wiregrass, and crowfoot grass, Goosegrass belongs to the plant family Poaceae.
It is a little yearly grass circulated all through the hotter region of the world to around 50 degrees scope. It is an obtrusive species in certain areas. Eleusine indica is firmly connected and has several common features with Eleusine coracana (finger millet or African finger millet), and the diploid Eleusine indica is likely an ancestor of the allotetraploid Eleusine coracana. These species are somehow difficult to separate on the basis of their appearance, shape, height, and colorNishimoto, R.K. and L.B. McCarty, Fluctuating temperature and light influence seed germination of goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Weed science, 1997. 45(3): p. 426-429. Read.
Turf, arranged regions, gardens, crop fields, plantations, the side of the road, and disturbed places are most commonly considered environmental conditions for goosegrass spread. Goosegrass structures a light green matlike bunch with leveled stems that fills in a low rosette. Stems are to some degree beefy at the base. The experienced plant can spread to around 2-1/2 feet (80 cm) wide.
The leaf-cutting edges are almost bare, aside from long hairs on the cutting edge bases, collars, and additionally upper sheath edges. Leaves are fallen along the midvein close to the foundation of the sharp edge. Seed heads are fairly like those of dallisgrass, and Paspalum dilatatum, yet are more limited and stiffer. The Organic products are minuscule, ruddy brown, one cultivated, and encased in a meager covering. Sheaths are open, smoothed, fell, and are whitish at the base around the collar.
Seeds are produced even when plants are closely mowed. Leaves have a short membranous ligule with a rough top. It is generally split in the middle. There are no auricles. Flowers are generally supposed to sprout from July through October. Blossoms group along firm spikes. Generally, two to six spikes transmit out toward the finish of the blossoming stem. In some cases, a couple of spikes are connected beneath the terminal bunchChauhan, B.S. and D.E. Johnson, Germination ecology of goosegrass (Eleusine indica): an important grass weed of rainfed rice. Weed Science, 2008. 56(5): p. 699-706. Read.
Invasiveness by seeds and spread of goosegrass
Eleusine indica is principally recorded as a farming and ecological weed and is thought of as a “serious weed” in something like 42 nations. This species is portrayed as a “predominant weed” particularly in cultivating frameworks and yearly column crops where it develops overwhelmingly and produces bountiful seedlings. A solitary plant might create beyond 50,000 little seeds, which can be effortlessly scattered by wind and water, connected to creature fur and hardware, and as a pollutant in soil.
Eleusine indica attacks upset environments in regular regions and the edges of normal backwoods and prairies, swamps, stream banks, and beachfront regions. It is likewise a typical weed along streets, asphalts, and power line halls. Right now it is recorded as obtrusive in a few nations in Europe, Asia, Focal and South America, the Caribbean, and on numerous islands in the Pacific Sea. The risk of the introduction of Eleusine indica into new natural surroundings is exceptionally high.
This species is quite possibly the most well-known agrarian and ecological weed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It has eco-physiological and hereditary qualities that, combined with the big number of seeds delivered for every individual plant, give it a high score for the fruitful attack in practically any biological system. So the main spreading cause is through seedLuchian, V., et al., Some aspects of morpho-anatomical features of the invasive species Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy, 2019. 62(1). Read.
Integrated management for goosegrass
Goosegrass is brought into turf stands principally through the exchange of seed on support hardware, shoes, and soil utilized for remodeling projects. Even though there is no useful method for identifying seeds in the soil, utilizing soils from destinations with no history of goosegrass pervasion can diminish the possibilities of defilement of turf grass locales. If by some stroke of good luck, a couple of goosegrass plants are overrunning a stand, they can be eliminated by hand pulling or utilizing a scoop or other hand-held weed expulsion device.
Alleviating soil compaction through center air circulation, adding natural matter in soil soils, and lessening foot or vehicle traffic can help improve turf grass cover and help in rivaling goosegrass. Further developing turf thickness through treatment, water system during dry season conditions, and the utilization of turf grasses very much adjusted to site conditions will assist with diminishing invasions of goosegrassBuker, R.S., S.T. Steed, and W.M. Stall, Confirmation and control of a paraquat-tolerant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) biotype. Weed Technology, 2002. 16(2): p. 309-313. Read.
Goosegrass can be controlled with certain pre-emergence herbicides assuming that applications are made in spring before the greatest day-to-day soil temperatures at the 2-inch profundity reach somewhere in the range of 62 and 65°F. Since soil temperatures expected for the germination of goosegrass are regularly higher than those for crabgrass, control of the two species in a similar stand can challenge.
Post-emergence control of goosegrass includes the utilization of items that kill plants after they have shown up on the turf. For post-emergence herbicides to be successful, goosegrass plants should be consistently covered and at the phase of development indicated on item marks. Natural circumstances additionally assume a significant part in the post-emergence control of goosegrass, with satisfactory soil dampness and moderate temperatures, by and large, giving the best outcomes.
Specific post-emergence herbicides marked for control of goosegrass incorporate items containing fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Recognition Extra and Last Call), mesotrione (Steadiness), topramezone (Pylex), and Speedzone (2,4-D ester, MCPP, dicamba, and carfentrazone). Make certain to follow name preparatory articulations, limitations, and bearings regarding rates and timing of utilizations while utilizing these herbicides.
Speedzone is to some degree novel in that a broadleaf herbicide can be utilized for post-emergence control of goosegrass. This herbicide is marked for use on all cool-season turf grasses however ought not to be utilized on fairway putting greens. A solitary utilization of Speedzone has some control over early leaf-stage goosegrass yet gives unfortunate control of tillered goosegrass plantsMcCullough, P.E., J. Yu, and D.G. de Barreda, Efficacy of preemergence herbicides for controlling a dinitroaniline-resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Georgia. Weed Technology, 2013. 27(4): p. … Continue reading.
Uses of goosegrass
There are several kitchen-related uses associated with goosegrass. Boiled goosegrass shoots and serve with olive oil or margarine, prepared with just the right amount of salt and pepper. Cook ready goosegrass seeds at a low temperature. Grind the simmered seeds and use them as a non-charged espresso substitute. Add the delicate youthful shoots to plates of mixed greens, omelets, or soups.
Goosegrass benefits are numerous and the plant has been utilized restoratively wherever it develops. It is an intense diuretic and is likewise used to treat cystitis and other urinary issues, as well as gallstones, bladder, and kidney issues. It ought to be utilized in modest quantities and ought to be kept away from by diabetics.
Generally, goosegrass natural purposes incorporate a poultice for skin issues like psoriasis and dermatitis, as well as minor cuts and scratches. Since goosegrass is high in L-ascorbic acid, sailors esteemed it as a treatment for scurvy a long time ago. Numerous cutting-edge homegrown specialists depend on goosegrass for its calming characteristics and to treat respiratory issues, including hacks, asthma, influenza, and the normal virusZakri, Z.H.M., et al., Eleusine Indica for Food and Medicine. Journal Of Agrobiotechnology, 2021. 12(2): p. 68-87. Read.
|↑1||Lee, L.J. and J. Ngim, A first report of glyphosate‐resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) in Malaysia. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 2000. 56(4): p. 336-339. Read|
|↑2||Nishimoto, R.K. and L.B. McCarty, Fluctuating temperature and light influence seed germination of goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Weed science, 1997. 45(3): p. 426-429. Read|
|↑3||Chauhan, B.S. and D.E. Johnson, Germination ecology of goosegrass (Eleusine indica): an important grass weed of rainfed rice. Weed Science, 2008. 56(5): p. 699-706. Read|
|↑4||Luchian, V., et al., Some aspects of morpho-anatomical features of the invasive species Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy, 2019. 62(1). Read|
|↑5||Buker, R.S., S.T. Steed, and W.M. Stall, Confirmation and control of a paraquat-tolerant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) biotype. Weed Technology, 2002. 16(2): p. 309-313. Read|
|↑6||McCullough, P.E., J. Yu, and D.G. de Barreda, Efficacy of preemergence herbicides for controlling a dinitroaniline-resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Georgia. Weed Technology, 2013. 27(4): p. 639-644. Read|
|↑7||Zakri, Z.H.M., et al., Eleusine Indica for Food and Medicine. Journal Of Agrobiotechnology, 2021. 12(2): p. 68-87. Read|