Plant

All about Ruellia Brittoniana (Mexican Petunia)

Mexico, South America, Florida, and the Caribbean are famous for the plant Ruellia Brittoniana which is characterized by its appealing purple and blue flowers. The plant Ruellia Brittoniana has many common names e.g. Mexican petunia, Mexican bluebell, Britton’s petunia, Wild Petunia, Hardy’s petunias, Purple Ruellia, Purple showers, etc.

The most common, oldest, and most widely accepted name given to Ruellia Brittoniana is Ruellia Simplex. The origin of this flowering dicotyledonous plant is Mexico. Ruellia Simplex belongs to the family Acanthaceae and genus Ruellia, which is an important genus in many pharmaceutical and medical aspects.

Ruellia Simplex is also important to plant species in pharmaceutical and medical aspects. Acanthaceae is on the whole a very important plant family having more than 4300 species and 450 genera[1]Tejaputri, N.A., et al., Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant properties by DPPH radical scavenger activity of ruellia brittoniana flower. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 2019. … Continue reading.

Ruellia brittoniana
By Abwdvm – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=81616815

Ruellia simplex is an evergreen enduring growing 3 feet (0.91 m) tall, framing provinces of stalks with spear formed leaves that are 6 to 12 in (15 to 30 cm) and .5 to .75 in (1.3 to 1.9 cm) wide. Trumpet molded blossoms are metallic blue to purple, with five petals, and 3 in (7.6 cm) wide. It’s an evergreen enduring known for its blossoms and being deer safe.

These plants commonly structure provinces of stalks with spear molded leaves. While the foliage is appealing, it’s the Petunia blossoms that capture everyone’s attention for this plant. These happen in soggy evergreen and thick or open woods, tropical dry deciduous and inferior terrains backwoods, wet fields and valleys, at the ocean coast, and in swamps.

It has been generally utilized as a fancy plant and has gotten away from development in the United States, Australia, and portions of Asia, as well as a few Pacific Islands. It is a plant of wet places; for example, ditches, lake borderlines, lakesides, and bogs however can get by in drier circumstances[2]Afzal, K., et al., Genus Ruellia: Pharmacological and phytochemical importance in ethnopharmacology. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica-Drug Research, 2015. 72(5): p. 821. Read.

Types of related species

1. Ruellia tuberosa

This species has many common names such as sheep potato and fever root but is most commonly known as Thai Ruellia. It is mostly seen in Central America and South Asia. This biennial species has violet blood and below flowers seed carting sessile contains 18-20 seeds. This cultivar prefers damp and shading places to grow well. It has several uses in the pharmaceutical industry, Ayurvedic, gastro-protective, and anti-diabetic medicines[3]Chothani, D.L., et al., Review on Ruellia tuberosa (cracker plant). Pharmacognosy Journal, 2010. 2(12): p. 506-512. Read.

Arya kencana ruellia tuberosa
By Aris riyanto – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=79738844

2. Ruellia brittoniana ‘Katie’ (Blue Dwarf)

This conservative herbaceous enduring has long, tight, dull green leaves and blossoms vigorously during the warm a very long time with conspicuous cylindrical, petunia-like blue blossoms. Plant in full sun or part conceal, and give moderate water system. Seedlings without the conservative propensity might come up in clammy soils. Scale plants back in pre-spring to eliminate ice harm and energize new development[4]Holcomb, G., First report of southern blight of Ruellia brittoniana caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Louisiana. Plant disease, 2004. 88(7): p. 770-770. Read.

Dwarf_Mexican_Petunia
Dwarf_Mexican_Petunia

3. Ruellia brittoniana ‘White Katie’

The species White Katie is characterized by the presence of a wide clump of bright green foliage covered with white flowers. The only problem could be the harsh winter season in the way of its growth and the plant is known to be one of the best bedding plant species. This specie likes wet and marshy soil to grow and nature is found to be invasive[5]Freyre, R., et al., Fruitless Ruellia simplex R10-102 (‘Mayan Purple’) and R10-108 (‘Mayan White’). HortScience, 2012. 47(12): p. 1808-1814. Read.

Ruellia simplex at Kadavoor
By © 2010 Jee & Rani Nature Photography (License: CC BY-SA 4.0), CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30706063

4. Ruellia brittoniana ‘Chi Chi’ Wild Petunia

This cultivar is native to South America, Florida, and Mexico. The summer is enriched with heavy baby pink blossom on this commonly known as Wild Ruellia. It requires full sunlight but damp soil for proper growth. The other common name is water-blue-bells due to the reason of its attractiveness when grown around ponds. Seed and rhizome are the reasons for its rapid spread[6]Freyre, R., et al. Breeding and genetic studies of Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia). in XXV International EUCARPIA Symposium Section Ornamentals: Crossing Borders 1087. 2015. Read.

Ruellia simplex in Kadavoor
By © 2010 Jee & Rani Nature Photography (License: CC BY-SA 4.0), CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30706080

Propagation methods of Ruellia Brittoniana

1. Natural propagation (By Seeds)

Direct sow in pre-winter, plant it just underneath the outer layer of the dirt. For spring planting, blend the seeds in with wet sand and store them in the fridge for 60 days prior to planting. Keep the dirt gently soggy until germination, which for the most part requires 4 a month and a half.

The seeds can likewise be begun inside 6 two months prior to planting in spring. Keep seedlings delicately wet, and relocate them when they have fostered a few leaves. Water seedlings routinely until they become laid out. This plant fills best in normal soil; however, it ensures both dry spells and genuinely soggy soil.

This plant draws in hummingbirds and butterflies as well as opposing deer. It might spread by self-cultivating. This blossom performs well as a compartment plant or as an expansion to a stone nursery. These blooms don’t perform well as cut blossoms and are best appreciated outside.

After the blossoms blur, little seed cases will frame. Whenever ready, the seed units will start to become brown; eliminate them and spread them out to dry away from direct daylight. Remember that the units frequently detonate and remove their seed as they dry, and may require a light covering to contain the seed. Separate the seed from the units and store the seed in a cool, dry spot.

These lovely lavender blooms are a wild local kind of petunia. This wildflower frames hard seed cases that can be heard popping when they detonate their ready seeds to another area. This low-developing perpetual performs well as a compartment plant or as an expansion to a stone nursery[7]Wilson, S.B. and L.K. Mecca, Seed production and germination of eight cultivars and the wild type of Ruellia tweediana: A potentially invasive ornamental. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 2003. … Continue reading.

2. Vegetative propagation (By cutting)

The person doing vegetative propagation of Ruellia brittoniana requires some alcohols, plant roots, perlite, peat moss, and rooting hormone for soil management, and sharp shears for quick cutting. Clean the edge of a sharp blade with scouring liquor on a cloth. Disinfecting the edge takes out the possibility of spreading infection or microscopic organisms.

A sharp single edge, rather than pruners or scissors, diminishes the harm caused while taking a cutting. Slice 4 to 6 creeps from the finish of a Mexican petunia stem with the cleaned blade. Take one tip for each plant you need to proliferate. Cut just under a hub, a little enlarging where a leaf or stem meets the stem. The piece ought to have a development bud on the tip.

Select the best-looking stems, without any indications of illness or bug pervasion. Peel off the base third of the leaves on each cutting. Eliminate any buds and blossoms also. Fill spotless, 4-inch pots with a sterile blend of perlite and peat greenery. Soak the establishing blend. Empty some powdered establishing chemical into a little cup. Plunge the cut finish of each stem into the establishing chemical.

Embed a pencil into the focal point of each pot. Stick the cutting 2 crawls into the dirt. The pencil opening holds the establishing chemical back from being knocked off when it goes into the dirt. Put the pruned cuttings in splendid, aberrant light and keep those clammy while roots layout.

Plant Mexican petunias in full sun to incomplete shade in damp soil 1 foot separated when the cuttings start to create new development, in two to about a month and a half. The plants develop well close to lakes or streams[8]Hupp, K.V., et al., Natural area weeds: Mexican petunia (Ruellia tweediana). EDIS, 2010. 2010(2). Read.

Problems of Ruellia Brittoniana

The Mexican petunia is known for its protection from generally expected bugs and infections that plague other nursery plants. For the most part, the solid plant will fill in an assortment of social circumstances, even unfortunate ones. Mexican petunias flourish in full sun to halfway shade; however, the plant sprouts all the more productively in full daylight. Blossoming starts in the pre-summer and goes on through the late spring, into the late summer.

Mexican petunia ordinarily doesn’t experience any major issues. Notwithstanding, a chilly climate can harm the plant, turning the leaves brown.

The best way to keep away from this from happening is to safeguard the plant from cold. Assuming that the temperature is low to the point of causing icing, move the plant inside (if conceivable) to a hotter spot. Even though it isn’t normal for this plant to get contaminated, Mexican petunia blossom is vulnerable to insect parasites. Splash a decent quality insect spray or a cleanser arrangement on the foliage to dispose of arachnid parasites. Monitor the issue by pruning the tainted leaves, blossoms, and stems.

Image Source: Tulsa World

Mexican petunias are for the most part illness free, Taiwan detailed the loss of Mexican petunias from a contagious microbe called Sclerotium rolfsii, otherwise called Southern scourge. This root decay sickness caused shriveling and yellowing leaves, as well as mycelium development in both the roots and stems of the Mexican petunias in the nursery, killing tainted plants inside a time of 10 days.

The outcome was a weighty business misfortune in Mexican petunia creation. While this was a restricted episode, Southern scourge sicknesses are likewise present in the Southern U.S. The most effective way to keep away from contagious decays and illnesses of the root framework is to guarantee that your plants have well-depleting soil and the dirt doesn’t remain excessively soaked for any period[9]Fu, C., Y. Huang, and F. Lin, First Report of Southern Blight of Mexican Petunia (Ruellia brittoniana) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 2012. 96(12): p. 1822-1822. Read.

Cares of Mexican Petunia

Remember that while child purple showers may not be full, the plant becomes rich with age and from amassing settlements. Attributable to its quickly developing nature, it is viewed as intrusive. Neither the sprouts nor the actual plant has a particular scent. Regardless, it figures out how to draw in honey bees, butterflies, and even hummingbirds to the nursery. They don’t do well exposed.

As temperatures begin to drop, it is ideal to move Mexican petunias far removed from the cold and crisp winter breeze. The best methodology is for watering barely to the point of keeping the dirt reliably soggy. While these plants are tough and can do without water for quite a while, youthful petunia Ruellia simplex necessarily needs normal watering.

During the colder months of the year, avoid overwatering and possibly wetting when the dirt is dry. These plants develop well without an extra increase in manures. To take care of your plants, a tablespoon of 10-10-10 manure is sufficient. For ideal developing circumstances, utilize a well-depleting ripe soil.

Likewise, consider the pH level of the dirt. These plants endure alkalinity however typically do extraordinary in impartial or somewhat acidic soil. Relocate during late winter when the temperature is warm to the point of permitting the plant to settle and develop. Under the right circumstances, these plants are independent and don’t need a lot of extra consideration. Since they are intrusive, it is ideal to watch out for the development.

Assuming plants become leggy or quit blossoming, prune the shoots back to a large portion of their length. You can scale back to inside a couple creeps of the base if necessary, yet don’t eliminate every one of their leaves. Treat with fluid manure.

Water well to compel out new development and blossoms. Huge blossomed and twofold petunias should be deadheaded (expulsion of old and kicking the bucket blossoms) to further develop the appearance and sprout creation. A considerable lot of the more modest blossomed cultivars are self-cleaning[10]Adams, C.R., C. Wiese, and L.C. Cobb, Effect of season and number of glyphosate applications on control of invasive Mexican petunia (Ruellia simplex). Ecological restoration, 2014. 32(2): p. 133-137. … Continue reading.

Uses and Facts

  • This is a plant that draws in butterflies, makes great boundary plants or ground cover, and adds winter interest while filling in south Florida.
  • Petunias are adaptable annuals. They can be utilized for shading masses, borders, holders, hanging containers, or as an occasional groundcover.
  • On the off chance that you develop petunias from seed, begin them eight to 10 weeks before planting in beds. The exceptionally fine residue-like seed of petunias requires light for germination.
  • Buy solid youthful petunias that are short and reduced. Leggy, slight plants are delayed to acclimate to open-air conditions. Youthful plants not yet in sprout regularly get comfortable quicker.
  • A portion of these is utilized as therapeutic plants. Numerous types of the class have antinociceptive, cancer prevention agent, pain-relieving, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic, and calming properties. Petunias can be found in each shade of the rainbow in solids, differentiating veins or edges, and star designs.
  • The blossoms might be huge or little, unsettled, bordered, or twofold. They sprout from spring until ice. Numerous petunias, particularly white and lavender cultivars have an extremely sweet aroma.
  • Mexican petunia is an excellent plant bearing wonderful blossoms filling in full sun or incomplete shade. In any case, this spreading enduring is intrusive and restricted in certain states.
  • The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and triterpenoids are available. The variety has been customarily professed to be utilized for the treatment of influenza, asthma, fever, bronchitis, hypertension, skin inflammation, and diabetes.
  • Petunias regularly reseed in the nursery, however won’t return consistent with type. They as a rule return to a blend of little white, lavender, and rose blossoms[11]Khan, I., et al., Ethnobotany and medicinal uses of folklore medicinal plants belonging to family Acanthaceae: An updated review. MOJ Biol Med, 2017. 1(2): p. 34-38. Read.

References

References
1 Tejaputri, N.A., et al., Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant properties by DPPH radical scavenger activity of ruellia brittoniana flower. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 2019. 11(Special Issue 6): p. 24-28. Read
2 Afzal, K., et al., Genus Ruellia: Pharmacological and phytochemical importance in ethnopharmacology. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica-Drug Research, 2015. 72(5): p. 821. Read
3 Chothani, D.L., et al., Review on Ruellia tuberosa (cracker plant). Pharmacognosy Journal, 2010. 2(12): p. 506-512. Read
4 Holcomb, G., First report of southern blight of Ruellia brittoniana caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Louisiana. Plant disease, 2004. 88(7): p. 770-770. Read
5 Freyre, R., et al., Fruitless Ruellia simplex R10-102 (‘Mayan Purple’) and R10-108 (‘Mayan White’). HortScience, 2012. 47(12): p. 1808-1814. Read
6 Freyre, R., et al. Breeding and genetic studies of Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia). in XXV International EUCARPIA Symposium Section Ornamentals: Crossing Borders 1087. 2015. Read
7 Wilson, S.B. and L.K. Mecca, Seed production and germination of eight cultivars and the wild type of Ruellia tweediana: A potentially invasive ornamental. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 2003. 21(3): p. 137-143. Read
8 Hupp, K.V., et al., Natural area weeds: Mexican petunia (Ruellia tweediana). EDIS, 2010. 2010(2). Read
9 Fu, C., Y. Huang, and F. Lin, First Report of Southern Blight of Mexican Petunia (Ruellia brittoniana) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 2012. 96(12): p. 1822-1822. Read
10 Adams, C.R., C. Wiese, and L.C. Cobb, Effect of season and number of glyphosate applications on control of invasive Mexican petunia (Ruellia simplex). Ecological restoration, 2014. 32(2): p. 133-137. Read
11 Khan, I., et al., Ethnobotany and medicinal uses of folklore medicinal plants belonging to family Acanthaceae: An updated review. MOJ Biol Med, 2017. 1(2): p. 34-38. Read

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